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Dayspring tweetclass

I’m a huge lipid nerd. I thought these set of tweets from Dr. Thomas Dayspring was a good masterclass on cholesterol.

#Cholesterol month - Despite popular belief & erroneous Tweets the liver IS NOT the major organ of cholesterol production - extrahepatic tissues account for > 80% of sterol synthesis in virtually every species studied. This classic article is a MUST! https://t.co/hKTNWUgwNc pic.twitter.com/Py2LuXSX9k

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 1, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 2 - Cholesterol synthesis is a complex 37 multi-step, grouped in graphic to 4 major steps each containing several intermediaries requiring several enzymes - In step 4 the linear precursor squalene aromatizes into lanosterol @society_eas pic.twitter.com/mvDbHBDW3h

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 2, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 3 - Lanosterol (first aromatic sterol precursor) converts to cholesterol via either (1) Kandutsch-Russel (via lathosterol generation) or Bloch (via desmosterol generation) pathways. CLICK & study 4 graphics closely - https://t.co/k2oJ9oTqog @society_eas pic.twitter.com/NYbCfBH090

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 3, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 4 Lessons - Active form of cholesterol is termed free (unesterified). The storage (cellular) or transportation form which has an attached acyl group is cholesteryl ester (CE). Dietary is mostly CE which must be de-esterfied before absorption @society_eas pic.twitter.com/7aWzPkPKZM

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 4, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 5 - Cholesterol circulating in plasma lipoproteins (what we measure) is a minority pool that tells you nothing about the other pools. RBC carry more cholesterol than LP! Brain cholesterol HAS NO interchange with the other pools. https://t.co/yiegegI9Ka pic.twitter.com/BDlQsBURiO

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 5, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 6 - Hepato/enterocytic handling of sterols 1) HDL delipidation by SR-B1 2) LDLR uptake of apoB100 LP; 4) LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) uptake of apoB48/apoE LP; 4) HDL intake via holoparticle receptor; 5) from bile via NPC1L1 mediated flux pic.twitter.com/a0YyLNJ1CT

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 6, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 7 - Where do LDLs acquire their cholesterol? 1) Hepatic LDL synthesis 2) Lipolytic by-product of VLDL/IDL 3) CETP mediated CE transfer (homotypic from chylo/VLDL particles) or (heterotypic from HDLs) 4) free diffusion from cell surfaces including RBC pic.twitter.com/5L9MmLKX8M

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 7, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 8 - Understanding the polar & nonpolar aspects of cholesterol (active form) & cholesteryl ester (transport/storage form) & how they locate in unilayer (lipoprotein or micellar) or bilayer (cellular) surface membranes & lipoprotein cores @society_eas pic.twitter.com/tljwlr5jn3

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 8, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 9 - Hepatocellular Cholesterol Homeostasis - The graphic shows many of the paths used by hepatocytes to handle cholesterol - (influx, efflux, conversion, exportation, etc). pic.twitter.com/YJWlq90dBC

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 9, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 10 - Part of sterol (cholesterol and xenosterol) homeostasis involves influx (entry) & efflux (exit) at gut/enterocyte and hepatic/bile membrane interfaces. The receptor's affinity is sterol/stanol molecule specific @society_eas pic.twitter.com/PIJiNjsgZe

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 10, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 11 - Graphics detailing the multiple steps and pathways of (1) sterol (cholesterol & phytosterol) absorption and then (2) systemic internalization (via chylomicrons and HDLs) or (3) sterol efflux back to gut. Takes a book chapter to fully explain 🧐 pic.twitter.com/v9dtV1KFZO

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 11, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 12 - The LIPOPROTEIN trafficking the majority (60-70%) of plasma cholesterol is LDL. Many erroneously think all LDLs evolve from VLDL/IDL lipolysis. In fact almost 40% are made de novo within & directed secreted by the liver. pic.twitter.com/gXTI5WtR3V

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 12, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 13 - What determines the collective and individual cholesterol content of LDL(s) - Each particle is a differently sized and composed macromolecular entity which is subject to constant remodeling. Good reference is https://t.co/bEW2A0hbtx @society_eas pic.twitter.com/iiTvslsBum

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 13, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 14 - The largest lipoproteins are the enterocyte produced apoB48 chylomicrons (& VLDLs) which carry mostly TG but also free cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, phospholipids & multiple copies of many apoproteins. Good reference https://t.co/UdrQxo8s9o pic.twitter.com/7fxCFQ5YU8

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 14, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 15 - In plasma cholesterol (amphiphilic) and cholesteryl ester (hydrophobic) are components of the lipidome trafficked within lipoproteins but also in erythrocyte membranes and on albumin. The graphics highlight lipoprotein characteristics pic.twitter.com/L80QQOSUK5

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 15, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 16 - Time to relook at 4 of my graphics (posted in past) which should help clinicians and non-clinicians better understand the standard CHOLESTEROL metrics offered by labs. Note neither TG or lipoprotein concentrations are cholesterol measures pic.twitter.com/S9oX5flEJy

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 16, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 17 - Be careful thinking mastery of sterols is easy - My "simplified" graphic illustrates cholesterol homeostasis in the gut/bile/hepatocyte environ. Detailed (fire walled) explanation in Therapeutic Lipidology Ed 2 https://t.co/fTqtjIdBKU @society_eas pic.twitter.com/48Db9LoicC

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 17, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 18 - The cholesterol molecule consists of 27 carbon, 47 hydrogen & one oxygen atom (C27H47O). Please stop calling it bad or good as measuring its plasma concentration or what lipoprotein it is in provides no info as to its origin, destination or function pic.twitter.com/YGMx72Fa2s

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 18, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 19 - Cholesterol is also trafficked in the most numerous as well as the smallest and densest of lipoproteins, namely the HDLs. ApoA-I, produced in enterocytes & hepatocytes serves as a high-sterol affinity structural protein https://t.co/kRRkHXjNJP pic.twitter.com/BpLPXIaugx

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 19, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 20 - In honor of FH week - Lipoproteins trafficking cholesterol can be internalized when capable cells express LDL-receptors, the ligands of which are apoB100 or apoE @society_eas pic.twitter.com/c0cYI5Wziz

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 20, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 21 - Various cell types (tissues) have various and sometimes differing pathways to regulate cholesterol and xenosterol concentrations. Enterocytes and hepatocytes are unique in having NPC1L1 (influx) and ABCG5/G8 (efflux) transporters. pic.twitter.com/N6XIpvDfBQ

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 21, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 22 - Here are 2 oldie but goodie Sniderman papers revealing what statins do to cholesterol and lipoprotein metrics (LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, apoB and LDL-P). It is why we often need combo Rx. See https://t.co/xjMaoE4qIZ and https://t.co/H7gTpmQJC4 pic.twitter.com/pI9XNnZtPM

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 22, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 23 - Important to understand that LDL-cholesterol & LDL particle (LDL-P) concentrations usually have high correlation in predicting CV-risk but when they do not (discordance), CV-risk more closely follows particle #. https://t.co/qOJbNjsTQg @society_eas pic.twitter.com/eV0sixmYEI

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 23, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 24 - Rather complex topic but here are some images of HDL lipidation and delipidation of cholesterol & the numerous HDL cholesterol trafficking pathways - none of these are reflected by looking at HDL-C https://t.co/7UwH8FbiXh and https://t.co/AaJymIMqDt pic.twitter.com/XeqwMSbAk8

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 25, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 25 - Apo(a) on Lp(a) is composed of looped AA segments called kringles [IV (which has 10 subsegments) & V]. The size (MW) of apo(a) varies depending on # of repeats of KIV-2. "Small Lp(a)" particles refers to low MW of apo(a) not the LDL diameter. pic.twitter.com/2YxxaFlWWK

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 25, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 26 - A major regulator of cholesterol homeostasis is LDL receptor (LDLR) mediated clearance of apoB100 and apoE containing lipoproteins. Some of the influencing factors are illustrated pic.twitter.com/gIDVeKdW7L

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 26, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 27 - TG are not sterols but they sure can influence and complicate the apolipoprotein B-mediated delivery of cholesterol to the arterial wall. There are many influencing factors including apoC-III. https://t.co/HpnxaiFpzC pic.twitter.com/mKNv3uGdRI

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 27, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 28 - Statins & Cholesterol - Most of statin-induced LDLR upregulation occurs with lower dose - doubling dosage increases PCSK9 & absorption of gut cholesterol, reducing ability to lower LDL metrics as much as starter dose https://t.co/meIIbQIYJy pic.twitter.com/s3b7lTPWkz

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 28, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 29 - Although approved to do so fibrates, are not often used to reduce LDL-C. Their MOA is complex & modulates many factors influencing lipids & lipoproteins. Here are some of my graphics https://t.co/a77btxrn7b and https://t.co/6eSb1iyigQ @gpokmd pic.twitter.com/XmmS5XKNGb

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 29, 2021

#Cholesterol Month - Day 30 - Finishing the month of cholesterol education with a few chuckles and the basic NLA Fact Sheet on Lipid Measurements in the Management of CV Disease @nationallipid @society_eas pic.twitter.com/R0jBh3L2aW

— Thomas Dayspring (@Drlipid) September 30, 2021

Posted on 2021-09-30